DATA BASE NUCLEARE PARTE 3

Special: IL DATABASE NUCLEARE Parte 3

ELENCO DEGLI INCIDENTI RADIOATTIVI O DA CAUSE CONNESSE

Elenco compilato da Wm. Robert Johnston – Fonte e traduzioni di ProgettoHumus da: johnstonsarchive.net
Questa è una lista incompleta degli incidenti radioattivi.

Cliccando sulla casella luogo, ad ogni rispettivo incidente, si potranno leggere 
i dettagli (in inglese).

DATA LUOGO TIPO DI INCIDENTE/EVENTO DOSI PIU’ ELEVATE (rem) MORTI FERITI
~553 Chicago, Illinois, USA Sovraesposizione radiografica L 0 1
~1905 Washington, District of Columbia, USA Sovraesposizione radiografica L 0 1
6 Aug 1945 Hiroshima, Japan Uso bellico di arma nucleare (~80,000–N) 45,000 (130,000) 80,000?
9 Aug 1945 Nagasaki, Japan Uso bellico di arma nucleare (~200,000–N) 20,000 (65,000) 50,000?
21 Aug 1945 Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA Criticità di incidente con assemblaggio di plutonio 510 1 1
21 May 1946 Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA Criticità di incidente con assemblaggio di plutonio 2,100 1 1
2 Jun 1952 Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA Criticità di incidente con uranio 136 0 2
15 Mar 1953 Mayak Enterprise, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio 1,000 0 2
1 Mar 1954 Bikini Atoll, Pacific Ocean fallout atmosferico da test nucleare 300 1 93+
21 Apr 1957 Mayak Enterprise, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con soluzione di uranio 3,000 1 5
2 Jan 1958 Mayak Enterprise, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con soluzione di uranio 6,000 3 1
16 Jun 1958 Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA Criticità di incidente con soluzione di uranio 460 0 5
15 Oct 1958 Vinca, Yugoslavia Criticità di incidente in un reattore di ricerca 430 1 5
30 Dec 1958 Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA Criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio 12,000 1 0
13 Oct 1960 K-8 submarine, Barents Sea Perdita da un reattore 200 0 3
1960 USSR Sovraesposizione intenzionale 1500 1 0
1960 USSR Ingestione di materiale radioattivo L 1 0
3 Jan 1961 Idaho RTA, Idaho, USA Criticità di incidente con uranio in un reattore di ricerca (~350–N) 0 (3) 0
4 Jul 1961 K-19 submarine, North Atlantic Incidente in n reattore 6,000 8 31
14 Jul 1961 Siberian Chemical Combine, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con uranio 200 0 1
1961 Switzerland Vernice di trizio 300 1 2
1961 Plymouth, United Kingdom Incidente radiografico L 0 11?
7 Apr 1962 Hanford, Washington, USA Criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio 110 0 2
1962 Mexico City, Mexico Fonte radiografica compromessa 5,200 4 1
11 Jan 1963 Sanlian, PRC Fonte compromessa 8,000 2 4
11 Mar 1963 Sarov, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con assemblaggio di plutonio 550 0 2
24 Jul 1964 Wood River, Rhode Island, USA Criticità di incidente con soluzione di uranio in un impianto di uranio 10,000 1 1
1964 FR Germany Vernice di trizio 1,000 1 3
30 Dec 1965 Mol, Belgium Criticità di incidente con uranio in acqua 500 0 1
1965 Illinois, USA Incidente di irraggiamento L 0 1
1967 Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, USA Incidente da irraggiamento 600 0 3
5 Apr 1968 Chelyabinsk-70, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con uranio in assemblaggio 3,000 2 0
3 May-
Jun 1968
La Plata, Argentina Fonte compromessa L 0 1
10 Dec 1968 Mayak Enterprise, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio 2,450 1 1
1968 Chicago, Illinois, USA Incidente da irradiazione ~450 1 0
1970 Australia Incidente da irradiazione L 0 2
4 Feb 1971 USA Incidente da irradiazione ~260 0 1
15 Feb 1971 Kurtchatov, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con uranio 330 0 2
26 May 1971 Kurtchatov, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con uranio in acqua 6,000 2 2
1971 Chiba, Japan Fonte compromessa 130 0 3
1972 Bulgaria Esposizione radioattiva autoinflitta L 1 0
Jun 1974 Parsippany, New Jersey, USA Incidente da irradiazione 400 0 1
1974-1976 USA Incidente radioterapico L 0 88
1975 Tucuman, Argentina Incidente radioterapico L 0 2
1975 Brescia, Lombardia, Italy Incidente da irraggiamento alimentare 1,200 1 0
1976? USA Incidenti da fluoroscopio L 0 2
1977 Atucha, Argentina Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
1977 La Plata, Argentina Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
1977 Rockaway, New Jersey, USA Incidente da irradiazione 200 0 1
5 May 1978 Setif, Algeria Fonte radiografica compromessa 140 1 6
13 Dec 1978 Siberian Chemical Combine, Russia, USSR Criticità di incidente con soluzione di plutonio 250 0 1
1978 Buenos Aries, Argentina Incidente da esposizione a fonte industriale L 0 1
5 Jun 1979 Los Angeles, California, USA Fonte compromessa L 0 5
1979 Parana, Argentina Incidente radiografico 94 0 1
1979 Montpelier, France Incidente da irradiazione L 0 1
1970s? France Assalto radiologico L 0 1
1980 Shanghai, PRC Incidente da irradiazione 500 0 1
1980 Texas, USA Incidente radioterapico L? 7 ?
2 Apr 1981 Saintes, France Incidente da irradiazione L 0 3
29 Jul 1981 Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA Intenzionale autoesposizione a fonte industriale radiografica ? 1 0
1981 Buenos Aires, Argentina Incidente da irradiazione L 0 2
2 Sep 1982 Kjeller, Norway autoclavatura 2,200 1 0
1982 La Plata, Argentina Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
23 Sep 1983 Constituyentes, Argentina Criticità di incidente con uranio in acqua 3,700 1 0
6 Dec 1983-
Feb 1984
Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Dispersione di fonte radiografica compromessa 450 1 4
Mar 1984 Casablanca, Morocco fonte radiografica compromessa ? 8 3
1984 Mendoza, Argentina Incidente radiografico L 0 1
3 Jun 1985 Marietta, Georgia, USA Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
26 Jul 1985 Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
10 Aug 1985 K-314 submarine, Vladivostok, Russia, USSR Incidente di reattore in corso di  rifornimento ? 10 49
1985 PRC (Cina) Incidente di acceleratore ? 0 2
1985 PRC (Cina) Incidente radioterapico L 1 1
1985 PRC (Cina) Incidente da irradiazione L? 0 3
1985 Odessa, Texas, USA Incidente da irradiazione L 0 1
Sep 1985-
6 Jan 1986
Yakima, Washington, USA Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
21 Mar-
11 Apr 1986
Tyler, Texas, USA Incidente radioterapico L 2 0
26 Apr-
6 May 1986
Chernobyl, Ukraine, USSR Esplosione di vapore e fuoco in un reattore di grafite 1,600 28 (31) 238+
1986 Kaifeng City, PRC Incidente da irradiazione 350 0 2
1986 United Kingdom Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
17 Jan 1987 Yakima, Washington, USA Incidente radioterapico L 1 0
Jul-
Sep 1987
Koko, Nigeria Esposizione radiologica ad un basso livello di scorie ? 0 26
12-29 Sep 1987 Goiania, Goias, Brazil Dispersione accidentale di fonte radiografica compromessa 700 5 20
1987 Zhengzhou City, PRC Incidente da irradiazione 135 0 1
1988 Zhao Xian, PRC Incidente da irradiazione 520 0 1
1988 Exeter, United Kingdom Incidente radioterapico L 0 ?
5 Feb 1989 San Salvador, El Salvador Incidente da irradiazione 800 1 2
1989 Beijing, PRC Incidente da irradiazione 89 0 2
1989 PRC Incidente radiografico L 0 1
29 Mar 1990 USA Incidenti da fluoroscopio L 0 1
21 Jun 1990 Soreq, Israel Incidente in un impianto radioattivo commerciale 1,500 1 0
Jun 1990 Shanghai, PRC Incidente da irradiazione 1,200 2 5
10-20 Dec 1990 Zarragosa, Spain Incidente radioterapico L 18 9
1990 Sasolburg, South Africa Fonte compromessa L 0 4
Aug 1991 Forbach, France Incidente da irradiazione L 0 1
26 Oct 1991 Nesvizh, Belarus Incidente da irradiazione 1,100 1 0
11 Dec 1991 Maryland, USA Incidente da irradiazione L 0 1
1977?-1991 United Kingdom Incidente radiografico L 1 0
16-21 Nov 1992 City of Indiana, Pennsylvania, USA Incidente radioterapico L 1 0
19 Nov 1992 Jilin, Xinzhou, PRC Fonte industriale compromessa 800 3 5
17 Nov 1992 Hanoi, Vietnam Incidente da irradiazione L 0 1
Nov 1992 PRC Incidente da irradiazione ? 0 4
1992 San Antonio, Texas, USA Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
1993 Russia Omicidio usando una fonte radioattiva ? 1 0
28 Apr 1994 Tokyo, Japan Incidente da irradiazione L 0 1
21 Oct-
18 Nov 1994
Tammiku, Estonia Fonte compromessa 400 1 4
1994 Texas City, Texas, USA Incidente da irradiazione L 0 1
1995 France Incidente radiografico L 0 1
1995 France Fonte compromessa L 0 1
1995 Tyler, Texas, USA Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
Jun 1996-
9 Oct 1997
Lilo Training Center, Tbilisi, Georgia Fonte compromessa 590 0 11
24 Jul 1996 Gilan, Iran Fonte industriale radiografica compromessa 450 0 1
22 Aug-
27 Sep 1996
San Jose, Costa Rica Incidente radioterapico L 7 81
17 Jun 1997 Arzamas-16, Russia Criticità di incidente con uranio in assemblaggio 4,850 1 0
1997 Georgia Fonte compromessa ? 1 ?
1998 Houston, Texas, USA Incidente da irradiazione L 0 1
10 Dec 1998-
8 Jan 1999
Istanbul, Turkey Fonte compromessa radiografica 310 0 10
20 Feb 1999 Yanango, Peru Fonte compromessa 150 0 1
13 Sep 1999 Grozny, Russia Tentato furto di fonti high 3 3
30 Sep-
1 Oct 1999
Toki-mura, Japan Criticità di incidente con uranio in soluzione 1,800 2 1
1999 Houston, Texas, USA Incidente radioterapico L 0 1
1999 Kingisepp, Russia Fonte compromessa ? 3
24 Jan-
20 Feb 2000
Samut Prakarn, Thailand Fonte compromessa radiografica 200 3 7
5 Jun-
3 Jul 2000
Mit Halfa, Egypt Fonte compromessa radiografica ? 2 5
Aug 2000-
24 Mar 2001
Panama City, Panama Incidente radioterapico L 17 11
27 Feb 2001 Bialystok Oncology Center, Poland Incidente radioterapico L 0 5
~2001 Samara, Russia Fonte compromessa radiografica 275 0 3
summer 2001 Kandalaksha, Russia Fonte compromessa ? 0 4
early Dec 2001-
Feb 2002
Liya, Georgia Fonte compromessa radiografica ? 0 3
2003-
13 Nov 2003
Kola Harbor, Russia Fonte compromessa ? ? 1+?
5 gennaio/1 febbraio Glasgow radiotheraphy accident, 2006 Sovraesposizione a terapia radioattiva 1

INCIDENTI PER TERRORISMO NUCLEARE al 28/09/03

LEGENDA:

Alla casella “DOSI PIU’ ELEVATE” la lettera “L” indica incidenti che riguardano esposizioni localizzate; la lettera “N” indica la più alta dose individuale ricevuta dovuta agli effetti oltre che alle radiazioni ionizzanti

MORTI“: si riferiscono alle morti indotte dalle radiazioni ionizzanti, inclusi dati parentetici dovuti da altri effetti (risultati termici e meccanici di esplosioni).


3 Jan 1961: United States
–criticality accident at SL-1 test reactor kills 3; according to reports, the excursion was a murder-suicide by the worker who extracted a control rod.INCIDENTI PER TERRORISMO NUCLEARE al 28/09/03

1966-1977: Europe–10 terrorist incidents against European nuclear installations.2

before 1974: Austria–Radioisotope indium-113 applied to a railroad car.3

1974-1986: United States–32 acts of intentional damage or suspected sabotage at domestic nuclear facilities.4

1974-1985: Total of nearly 100 instances that involved response by NEST.5

1974-1980: United States–total of about 80 instances of nuclear threats deemed credible; only two prompted NEST deployment.6

15 Aug 1975: France–Two bombs exploded at Mt. d’Arree NPS in Brittany: one at far end of canal between plant and cooling lake, the other damaging a air chimney for plant buildings in the compound. The reactor was shut down temporarily for inspection.7

12 May 1976: Maine–Two bombs exploded in the headquarters of the Central Maine Power Company in Augusta; a Fred Hampton Unit of the People’s Forces claimed responsibility and demanded end to expansion of nuclear powerplants.8

10 Oct 1977: Oregon–Bomb exploded next to visitor center at Trojan NPS, with Environmental Assault Unit of the New World Liberation Front claiming responsibility.9

18 Dec 1977: Spain–4 ETA terrorists attack guard post at Lemoniz NPS, with one terrorist killed; ETA later claimed to have planned to blow up the reactors.10

17 Mar 1978: Spain–Bomb exploded in steam generator of Lemoniz NPS killing 2 construction workers and injuring 14, ten minutes after ETA phone call warned of bomb; damage amounted to $6,000,000.11

1979: France–Environmental terrorists cause $20 million in damages at a nuclear plant.12

1979: Virginia–2 plant operator trainees entered fuel storage building at Surry NPS and damaged four new fuel  assemblies by pouring sodium hydroxide on them.13

Jan 1979: North Carolina–An employee of a GE subcontractor sent extortion letter with sample of uranium dioxide to general manager of GE nuclear faility in Wilmington. Individual had stolen two 5-gallon containers of uranium dioxide and threatened to disperse them in unnamed U.S. city unless he received $100,000 ransom. He was arrested and sentenced to 15 years.14

13 Jun 1979: Spain–Two ETA guerrillas planted bomb in turbine room of Lemoniz NPS which was later detonated 25 minutes after a warning call. One worker who did not evacuate was killed; a tank containing 5,000 liters of oil was ignited and turbine components were moderately damaged. The ETA claimed responsibility on 16 June.15

11 Nov 1979: Spain–5 ETA guerrillas entered Equipos Nucleares (Nuclear Instruments) factory in Maliano, planted explosives and kidnapped the 10 guards on duty; guards were released near Santander-Vizcaya border. Charges exploded after midnight, causing $6,000,000 in damage mostly to one end of main factory building. ETA claimed responsibility on 13 November.16

before 1980: France–Radioactive graphite fuel element plugs placed under driver’s seat of a car; victim sustained 25-30 rad dose to his spinal bone marrow and 400-500 rads to his testes. Perpetrator was tried and convicted of poisoning by radiation, fined $1,000, and served 9 months in prison.17

1981: New York–fuel oil filter drains were closed on backup diesel power generators at Nine Mile Point Unit 1, apparently intentionally, preventing their startup.18

1981: Ohio–water valve was found shut, apparently intentionally, at Beaver Valley NPS, leaving high-pressure portion of emergency cooling system disabled.19

1982: France–Five rockets fired into Creys-Malville nuclear facility, causing minor damage.20
Aug 1982: New Jersey–values were found closed on backup diesel generator at Salem Unit II NPS, apparently intentionally, which would prevent generator start-up.21

1983: West Germany–Four West Germans gain forced entry to a Pershing missile site and attempt to destroy a missile with crowbars.22

12 Nov 1984: Missouri–Four Catholic peace activists of the Silo Pruning Hooks entered Minuteman ICBM site near Higginsville and did over $10,000 worth of damage to equipment with a jack hammer; all were arrested and charged with destruction of federal property.23

Apr 1985: New York–Credible claim emerged that New York City’s water reservoirs had been contaminated with plutonium; testing detected femtocurie levels of plutonium in the water.24

Jun 1985: Arizona–Report of intentional tampering with water valves at Palo Verde NPS.25

after 1987: Pennsylvania–Mentally ill man drives his station wagon through the fence at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and wanders on foot for a period of time before being captured.26

28 Nov 1987: California–Bomb exploded at 1:30 A.M. in parking lot of Sandia National Laboratories (next to LLNL); 32 hours later a caller claimed responsibility for the Nuclear Liberation Front, although link was unconfirmed.27

Feb 1990: Azerbaijan--Azerbeijani rebels unsuccessfully attacked a Soviet military depot near Baku where nuclear weapons are stored; Soviet troops were sent to secure the base.28

Jan 1992: Iran–Egyptian newspaper claimed Iran had bought three Soviet nuclear warheads from Kazakhstan for $150 million; Kazakhstan denied the report. In April Russian intelligence reported Iran had obtained at least two warheads from Kazakhstan; in July a Kazakh official said the three reportedly missing warheads were in test shafts at the Kazakh test site; in September a U.S. congressional task force alleged Iran had obtained 4 Soviet warheads (including 2 operational): two 40 kt SRBM warheads, one 50 kt NGB, and one 0.1 kt AFAP. By 1994 Russia said the warheads were accounted for; Israeli officials suggest the warheads were borrowed for disassembly and reverse engineering.29

Mar 1992: CIS–Reportedly, box of radioactive material stolen from Pridniestroviye, Transdnestr; thieves threatened to blow up the material if fighting in Moldova was not stopped.30

1993: Russia–A radioactive substance was planted in the chair of Vladimir Kaplun, director of a Russian packing company; over several weeks Kaplun contracted radiation sickness and died.31

Nov 1993: Russia–Two nuclear warheads reportedly stolen by two employees of the Zlatoust-36 Instrument Building Plant near Chelyabinsk, a weapons assembly facility; weapons recovered in a nearby residential garage and the employees arrested shortly afterwards.32

Mar 1994: Russia–At SS-25 ICBM site at Barnaul in Siberia, a Russian soldier opens fire with sub-machine gun and kills commander and two other soldiers; other soldiers could not return fire because they would have had to fire towards the SS-25; the soldier was persuaded to surrender after three hours, having taking refuge in an armoured vehicle.33

23 Nov 1995: Russia–Shamil Basayev, Chechen rebel commander, directs television news crew to a parcel of cesium-137 buried in Izmailovsky Park, eastern Moscow; parcel reportedly posed no threat and was removed.
Parcel weighed 32 kg, contained 10-50 mCi, and was part of a hospital x-ray machine taken in a prior raid.34

Dec 1995: France–Saboteurs put salt into a cooling contour of one of the Blayais nuclear power reactors.35

9 Jan 1996: Russia–Chechen fighters attack a Russian military airfield at Kizlyar unsucessfully, then temporarily take about 2,000 civilian hostages.36

Jun 1996: New York–several individuals arrested in plot to kill Republican officials; seized weapons included radioactive materials.37

after 1996: Russia–Gunman barracades himself in a nuclear submarine and holds police at bay for several hours.38

May 1997: Russia–Aleksandr Lebed claims privately and later publicly that a number of Soviet ADMs disguised as suitcases are missing; his claims are affirmed by some but no concrete evidence emerges.39

Nov 1997: Russia–Several threats to sabotage submarine nuclear reactors are made by one or more Murmansk shipyard workers in demanding back pay they are owed.40

19 Aug 1999: United States–Andris Blakis spread phosphorous-32 on the chair of a co-worker in Los Angeles, CA, causing a dose to the co-worker of a few tenths of a rem; Blakis was arrested and charged.41
6-8 Jun 2000: Japan–Tsugio Uchinishi sent letters laced with monazite (a thorium-containing mineral) to 10 government offices in Tokyo in protest of illegal uranium exports to North Korea.42

20 Dec 2000: Japan–A man scattered a small amount of iodine-125 at a subway ticket gate in Osaka; the man was arrested, and no injuries resulted.43

2001: worldwide–6 incidents involving terrorism with nuclear or radiological materials.44

Il nucleare Gli specials

Data base nucleare parte 1

Data base nucleare parte 2